Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common renal neoplasia of various morphological types, among which clear cell RCC is the most common. About 70% of sporadic cases of clear cell renal cell carcinoma are accompanied by inactivation of the von Hippel–Lindau gene (VHL). It is known that VHL is a target for several miRNAs-mall noncoding RNAs that carry out post-transcriptional regulation of genes. The purpose of this study was to analyze the expression levels of miRNAs which target the VHL gene and also to analyze the association of genotypes and alleles of the rs1642742 polymorphic locus of the VHL gene located at the miRNA binding site with the risk of developing clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). As a result of the analysis, no statistically significant changes in the expression level were found, although miR-21 and miR-224 showed a tendency to increase expression in the tumor compared with normal kidney tissue (p = 0.0597 and p = 0.0846, respectively). Also, in a comparative analysis of the frequencies of genotypes and alleles of the polymorphic locus rs1642742 of the VHL gene, an association of the rs1642742*GG genotype was found with the risk of developing ccRCC in a group of people over 55 years old (p = 0.0381; OR = 1.84; 95% CI (1.03–3.31)). Undoubtedly, further study of miRNAs on large groups of samples is necessary, which will make it possible both to identify new molecular markers of the risk of developing the disease and to form panels of prognostic markers.