Background: The anti-carcinogenic eﬀects of anthocyanin are well documented. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common and lethal cancer types due to its high degree of malignancy and poor prognosis. The main purpose of the current study was to investigate the potential inhibitory eﬀects of anthocyanin on oral squamous cell carcinoma and identify eﬀective targets for therapy. Methods: Cellviability wasmeasuredusing cellcounting kit-8(CCK8). Cellmigration andinvasion abilitieswere determined using scratch-wound and Transwell invasion assays, respectively. mRNA and protein expression patterns of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), caspase-1 and IL-1β were detected using qRT-PCR, immunoﬂuorescence and western blot. The gasdermin D (GSDMD) level was determined via confocal microscopy and western blot. Results: Anthocyanin reduced the viability of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and inhibited migration and invasion abilities. Simultaneously, activation of pyroptosis was associated with enhanced expression of NLRP3, caspase-1, and IL-1β. Upon administration of caspase-1 inhibitors, anthocyanin-activated pyroptosis was suppressed and cell viability, migration, and invasion rates concomitantly enhanced. Conclusion: Anthocyanin promotes the death of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells through activation of pyroptosis and inhibits tumor progression.